Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)

Hemlock tree (Tsuga canadensis). No relation to poison hemlock, which is not a tree and is a flowering plant instead of a conifer. 

Tsuga is something that all the older Appalachian herbalists i knew used, but it isn’t a common herb of commerce. The needles are useful as an expectorant and decongestant. The bark is a laxative. The sap can be combined with slippery elm bark to make a stong wound dressing. Tar can be made by burning the branches , and it has its own set of medicinal purposes, sort of an antiinflammatory when used topically. 

The leaves can also be burned as a smudge, to break up congestion and prevent contagion. The root inner bark can be used as a bandage, and has very good tensile strength as well as antiseptic properties. 

Sadly, the entire world population of this plant is under threat from an insect infestation, and much of it has already died.